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Firqa And Fiqh

Posted on August 28th, 2013 No Comments

Among the indicative of divisions or distinctions, the words used in the Koran are hizb (pl. ahzab), ta’ifa, shi’a and the derivatives of f-q-r. All can be understood with the general meaning of party, group or faction. The word hizb in its singular, plural and dual forms appears 19 times and the word shi’a and shi’ya occurs 11 times in the Koran. The word ta’ifa and its dual forms appears 23 times, used more or less randomly to refer to groups or parties among the Ahl al-Kitab. Tusi (d. 460/1067) calls the Shi’ites “the group which is right” (al-ta’ifa al-muhaqqiqa).

In Koran (3:23), the word fariq is used in the meaning of a faction. The one occurrence of firqa refers to a unit among the believers: “The believers should not go out together to fight, of every firqa of them a ta’ifa should remain behind to acquire religious knowledge” (9:122), “After the hearts of a fariq among them had almost turned away” (9:117). The word firaq (sing. firqa) is a noun from the Arabic verbal stem furaqa means split, divide or differentiate. In his book al-Farq bain al-firaq, al-Baghdadi used the word firqa means sect. So does al-Shahristani in his al-milal wa al-nihal when he used the word milla to mean nation, he used the word nihla to mean religious order.

According to the famous tradition, “The Jews are divided into 71 sects, the Christians into 72 sects, and my people will be divided into 73 sects.” This tradition is recorded with some variations in wording in many sources, namely Masnad (2:332, 3:120 & 4:102) by Ahmad bin Hanbal, Sahih (5:25-26) by Tirmizi, Sunan (2:503) by Abu Daud, Sunan (2:1321-2) by Ibn Majah, Sunan (2:241) by Darimi, Mustadrak (4:430) by Hakim, Mishkat (1:61) by Khatib Tabrizi, Majma’az Zawa’id (7:157, 159) by al-Hathami, al-Kafi (8:224) by Kulaini, etc. Once Imam Jafar Sadik was asked, “Why Muslims are disunited?” The Imam asked, “Were they disunited in the period of the Prophet?” The man said, “No.” The Imam said, “Because they were obeying a single order of the Prophet and not going here and there in the matter of religion, and therefore, the unity of religion is possible only under the divine guidance of the Prophet and the Imam of the time after him.”

A few of the recognized authorities on the sects of Islam are:- Al-Maqalat wal firaq by al-Qummi (d. 301/914), Kitab Firaq al-Shi’a by Nawbakhti (d. 310/922), Maqalat al-Islamiyyin by al-Ashari (d. 324/935), Kitab al-tanbih wal-radd by al-Malati (d. 377/987), Al-Farq bain al-Firaq by al-Baghdadi (d. 429/1037), Kitab al-milal wal nihal by Ibn Hazm (d. 456/1064), Kitab al-milal wal nihal by Shahristani (d. 548/1153), Dabistan al-Madhahib by Mohsin Fani (d. 1081/1670), etc. The following sects emerged in the mainstream of ummah:-

Sunni : Hanafi, Shafi, Maliki and Hanbali

Shi’ite : Ithna Asharis, Ismailis, Bohra, Alwi, Abadia, Abbasia, Kaisaniya, Zaidia, Matnasakhia, Mut’razia, Tania, Razia and Ishaqia.

Kharji : A’zarkia, Abardia, Salabia, Kharzamia, Khalafia, Karzia, Mut’zilla, Maimunia, Mahokamia, Shamrakhia, Naoshia and La’amina.

Jabaria : Muztaria, Magfiria, Jebia, Sabakia, Kaslia, Khofia, Fakaria, Hasabia, Mairamia, A’haiyya, Mo’haiyyia and Afalia.

Qadaria : Ahmadia, Sanavia, Kisania, Setania, Sharkia, Abadia, Nakasia, Tabaria, Kastia, Lazamia, Manzamiya and Wahemia.

Murjia : Tehmia, Check our website Almia, Rajia, Tarkia, Mashaikhia, Sakia, Manshia, Murtrawia, Ashrabia and Baduwia.
Jahamia : Moaltia, Marabandia, Mutrafia, Varidia, Hurufia, Makhlukia, Gairia, Fatiyya, Zanvakia, Lafzia and Waqifia.

The word fiqh is used in the literal sense to mean understanding and in this sense; the www.clashofclanshackonlines.xyz/clashofclanshack/ words fiqh and fahm are synonymous. The word fiqh was originally used by the Arabs for a camel expert, who could distinguish yu gi oh duel links cheats the pregnant she-camels with others, and thus the expression fahal faqihi was current among them. It indicates deep knowledge and understanding. In addition, the Arabic idiom goes Fala’n la yafaqahu wala yanqahu (So-and-so neither understands nor comprehends). In pre-Islamic days, the term Faqih al-Arab was an appellation given to Harith bin Kaladah. The word fiqh is used on several occasions in the Koran in the meaning of understanding: “What has come to these people that they fail to understand single fact” (4:78) and “They have hearts wherewith they understand not” (7:179). It implies that in the Prophet’s time, the term fiqh was not applied in the legal sense alone but carried a wider meaning. It may be noted that in the early days of Islam, the term fiqh and ilm were frequently used for an understanding of Islam in general. In Tabaqat (2:363) of Ibn Sa’d, the Prophet is reported to have blessed Ibn Abbas (d. 68/687), saying: “O God, give him understanding in religion” (Allahuma faq’hahu fi’din). The year 94/713 is known as sanat al-fuqaha (the year of the jurists), because a number of the celebrated jurists of Medina, notably Sa’id bin al-Musayyib, Abu Bakr bin Abd al-Rahman etc. died in that year (Ibid. 5:143). It seems reasonable to assume that the term fiqh and ilm were separated when jurists and specialists in hadith came into existence towards the end of the first century. It may be gathered from above analysis that the scope of the term fiqh was gradually narrowed down, and ultimately came to be applied to the legal problems. The word fiqh is defined by Raghib in these words: “Fiqh means arriving at the knowledge of the unknown by means of knowledge of the known.” In its technical sense, the word fiqh was restricted to Islamic jurisprudence.

The original source from which not only the basic tenets but also all principles and ordinances of Islam are derived is the divinely revealed Book.

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